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Second semester
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Learning outcomes of the course unit

The main course objectives are:
• to provide students the knowledge of the main technologies for
renewable sources conversion and storage systems, and their best performances.
• to show students some examples of systems to generate, transmit and store energy in the Smart-grids, with special attention to the way energy is produced and stored and to the related issues.
• to give students the knowledge to size and design photovoltaic systems with and without battery banks.

The knowledge of the main technologies of electronic and optoelectronic devices shows how the technological choices affect the final device performance, in particular:
• device scaling and integration and related issues;
• basic operating principles of devices beyond traditional planar CMOS, as FINFET, strained Silicon , etc. ;
• analysis of the limits of technological solutions and their impact on the final performance of electronic devices.

The student will learn to use CAD tools for electronic design both at device and system level. In particular, the student will be able to use the acquired knowledge and abilities:

I) at system level
• to design and size photovoltaic and storage systems on the basis of required performance and environmental restriction.

II) at device level
• to model and simulate the thermal and/or electrical and/or optical behavior of an electronic device;
• to analyze the impact of different factors as the geometry, doping, material choice etc. on the final performance of electronic devices;

3. SOFT-SKILLS USAGE. The laboratory activity, usually carried on in small
group, is also a mean to stimulate the student soft skills that is the ability to group working, to interact effectively with coworkers and teacher, to schedule the work and optimize the time required by the activity.


Fundamentals of electronics.

Course contents summary

I)Introduction to renewable energy source (sun, wind, sea) generation technologies; The solar energy conversion process .
Photovoltaic conversion and theoretical limits to conversion, fundamental definitions, photovoltaic materials.
Photovoltaic modules - Some of the most important photovoltaic cells: silicon solar cells, thin-film, multi-junction, dye sensitized (nods) and organic (nods) are analyzed.

Photovoltaic system - The fundamental components of a photovoltaic system: modules, inverters (for off-grid and on-grid applications), storage systems, charge controllers.

Photovoltaic concentrators: operating principle.

Electric energy storage systems.

Sizing of a photovoltaic system.

Smart grid and Microgrid.

II) Silicon planar process: the different steps of silicon planar process are analyzed showing the main technological constraints and the improvement capabilities; the CMOS process is studied in detail. The scaling, integration and time to market concepts in semiconductor industry are presented starting from IRDS (International Roadmap for Devices and Systems), with special attention to MOSFET devices, and interconnection lines and new structures.
III) Advanced CAD tools will be used to:
a) analyze solar cell and power electron device (software: Sentaurus-tcad), and
b) design and size photovoltaic and storage systems (software: Matlab, Simulink, Simscape).

Course contents

I) Introduction to distributed renewable energy sources: sun, wind, tide.
The solar energy conversion process – photovoltaic conversion, theoretical limits of PV conversion, main definitions, material for photovoltaic applications; (10 hours)

Photovoltaic modules –solar cells based on different technologies will be analyzed both optically and electrically: Silicon, thin film (CdTE, CIGS), multijunction, dye-sensitized and organic cells will be introduced. (12 hours)

Potential issues in the series and parallel connection of PV modules; effect of shading. (4 hours)

Photovoltaic system - main components: modules, inverter (off-grid and on-grid applications), storage systems, charge controllers. (4 hours)

Energy storage systems: chemical (hydrogen), electrochemical (battery), electrical (supercapacitor) and mechanical (flywheel, pumped hydro, compressed air); battery banks for PV stand-alone systems. (4 hours)

Sizing a PV system – system design considerations: site analysis and location, orientation and tilt, shading. Photovoltaic concentrators: main definitions and characteristics. (4 hours)

Smart grid and microgrids: definition and main features.
Hierarchical control scheme in microgrids: primary, secondary, tertiary control.
Inverter types in microgrid: Grid Forming, Grid Following and Grid Supporting. Wind generation systems.(10 hours)

II) Silicon planar process: main steps.
CMOS e SOI processes.
Scaling, integration and time to market: Ideal and real scaling: definition, limits and comparison;
Short channel effect: technological and architectural solutions.
(2 hours)

III) Advanced CAD tools will be used to:
a) analyze solar cell and power electron device with Sentaurus-TCAD software), (10 hours) and
b) design and size photovoltaic and storage systems (with MATLAB/Simulink).(12 hours)
Case Studies and exercises will be carried out.

Recommended readings

Topics treated in part I (see section "Contenuti" ):

1)A.Luque and S. Hegedus, "Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering" , 2.ed , Wiley, 2011.
2) A. Keyhani, "Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems", Wiley, 2011.
3) J. Momoh, “Smart Grid: fundamentals of design and analysis”, Wiley, 2012.
Topics treated in part II (see section "Contenuti" ):
4) S.M.Sze, "VLSI technology", McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1983
Books 1) 2) 3) 5) are in the "Engineering and Architecture" library.

Teaching methods

The class is organized in traditional classroom lessons based on the topics listed in the course program section.
The teacher will provide the students with excercises on the topics illustrated during the theoretical part of the course.
A CAD based laboratory activity directed towards the study, optimization and project of solar cell and power electron devices, as well as to design and size photovoltaic systems, will be part of course program. Participation to the laboratory activity is mandatory.

Assessment methods and criteria

The exam is oral and will verify the knowledge and understanding of the topics presented during the course.
The exam consists of two questions on the topics presented during the classroom lectures and the laboratory activities. There are no tests during the course period.

Other informations

Slides about arguments treated during the course will be prepared by the teacher and made available to students. The download of slides will be allowed for registered students from http://elly.dii.unipr.it/.